Airman’s Information Manual (AIM) – A publication containing basic flight information and ATC procedures, designed primarily as a pilot’s information and instructional manual for use in the National Airspace System.
Airport Elevation – The highest point on an airport’s usable runways, expressed in feet above mean sea level (MSL).
Airport Improvement Program (AIP ) – A Federal funding program for airport improvements. AIP is periodically reauthorized by Congress with funding appropriated from the Aviation Trust Fund. Proceeds to the Trust Fund are derived from excise taxes on airline tickets, aviation fuel, etc.
Airport Layout Plan (ALP) – A scaled drawing of existing and proposed land and facilities necessary for the operation and development of the airport. The ALP shows boundaries and proposed additions to all areas owned or controlled by the airport operator for airport purposes, the location and nature of existing and proposed airport facilities and structures, and the location on the airport of existing and proposed non-aviation areas and improvements thereon.
Airport Operations – Landings (arrivals) and takeoffs (departures) from an airport.
Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR) – A radar system which allows air traffic controllers to identify an arriving or departing aircraft’s distance and direction from an airport.
Airport Traffic Control Tower (ATCT ) – The airport traffic control facility located on an airport that is responsible for traffic separation within the immediate vicinity of the airport and on the surface of the airport.
Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC or Center) – A FAA facility established to provide air traffic control service to aircraft operating on Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) flight plans within controlled airspace during the en route portion of flight.
Air Traffic Control (ATC) – A service operated to promote the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic.
Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) – A tower that has been established on an airport to provide for a safe, orderly and expeditious flow of traffic on and in the vicinity of the airport.
Airway – A corridor of controlled airspace whose centerline is established by radio navigational aids (NAVAIDs). Low altitude airways (between 3,000 and 18,000 feet MSL) are identified by number with the letter V as a prefix. High altitude airways (above 18,000 feet MSL) are known as Jet airways and are identified by number with the letter J as a prefix.
Ambient Noise – The total sum of noise from all sources in a given place and time.
Approach Light Systems (ALS) – A series of lights that assists the pilot when aligning aircraft with the extended runway centerline on final approach.
Attenuation – Acoustical phenomenon whereby sound energy is reduced between the noise source and the receiver. This energy loss can be attributed to atmospheric conditions, terrain, vegetation, other natural features, and man-made features (e.g., sound insulation).
Automated Radar Terminal System (ARTS) – Computer-aided radar display subsystems capable of associating alphanumeric data – such as aircraft identification, altitude, and airspeed – with aircraft radar returns.
A-Weighted Sound (dBA) – A system for measuring sound energy that is designed to represent the response of the human ear to sound. Energy at frequencies more readily detected by the human ear is more heavily weighted in the measurement, while frequencies less well detected are assigned lower weights. A-weighted sound measurements are commonly used in studies where the human response to sound is the object of the analysis.
Azimuth – An arc of the horizon measured between a fixed point (such as true north) and the vertical circle passing through the center of an object.
Bank – A cluster of arrivals or departures in a short period of time, characteristic of an airline hub operation.
Base Leg – A flight path at right angles to the approach of a runway end. It usually extends from the downwind leg to the intersection of the extended runway centerline. See “traffic pattern.”
Baseline Condition – The existing condition or conditions prior to future development or the enactment of additional noise abatement procedures, which serve as a foundation for analysis.
Building Restriction Line (BRL) – A line drawn on an airport layout plan, which distinguishes, between areas that are suitable for buildings and areas that are unsuitable. The BRL is drawn to exclude the runway protection zones, the runway visibility zones required for clear line of sight from the airport traffic control tower, and all airport areas with a clearance of less than 35 feet (10.5 meters) beneath the FAR Part 77 surfaces.
Commuter Aircraft – Commuters are commercial operators that provide regularly scheduled passenger or cargo service with aircraft seating less than 60 passengers. A typical commuter flight operates over a trip distance of less than 300 miles.
Connecting Passenger – An airline passenger who transfers from an arriving aircraft to a departing aircraft in order to reach his or her ultimate destination.
Controlled Airspace – Airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the airspace classification. Controlled airspace is designated as Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E. Aircraft operators are subject to certain pilot qualifications, operating rules, and equipment requirements as specified in FAR Part 91, depending upon the class of airspace in which they are operating.
Crosswind Leg – A flight path at right angles to the approach runway end off of its upwind end.
Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL) – A noise measure used to describe the average sound level over a 24-hour period, typically an average day over the course of a year. In computing DNL, an extra weight of 10 decibels is assigned to noise occurring between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m. to account for increased annoyance when ambient noise levels are lower and people are trying to sleep. DNL may be determined for individual locations or expressed in noise contours.
Decibel (dB) – Sound is measured by its pressure or energy in terms of decibels. The decibel scale is logarithmic. A 10-decibel increase in sound is equal to a tenfold increase in sound energy.
DGPS antenna – Differential Global Positioning System is a way to correct the various inaccuracies in the GPA system by placing a reference antenna on a point that has been accurately surveyed. This antenna receives the same GPS signals as an aircraft but corrects the GPS signal for any inaccuracies.
Displaced Threshold – A threshold that is located at a point on the runway other than the designated beginning of the runway. The portion of pavement behind a displaced threshold may be available for takeoffs in both directions and landings from the opposite direction.
Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) – A flight instrument that measures the line-of-sight distance of an aircraft from a navigational radio station in nautical miles.
Double-Clear Zone – The double-clear zone is an area on the ground, of land up to 1,250 feet from each side of the runway centerline and extending 5,000 feet beyond each end of the primary runway surface. It is also known as the Approach Transitional Area for runways serving or anticipated to serve turbojet aircraft or having an existing or planned precision instrument runway.
Easement – The legal right of one party to use part of the rights of a piece of real estate belonging to another party. This may include, but is not limited to, the rite of passage over, on or below the property; certain air rights above the property, including view rights; and the rights to any specified form of development or activity.
Enplanements – The number of passengers boarding an aircraft at an airport. Does not include arriving or through passengers.
En Route System – That part of the National Airspace System where aircraft are operating between origin and destination airports.
En Route Control – The control of IFR traffic en route between two or more adjacent approach control facilities.
Environmental Assessment (EA) – A concise document that assesses the environmental impacts of a proposed Federal Action. It discusses the need for, and environmental impacts of, the proposed action and alternatives. An environmental assessment should provide sufficient evidence and analysis for a Federal determination whether to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). Public participation and consultation with other Federal, state, and local agencies is a cornerstone of the EA process.
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) – An EIS is a document that provides a discussion of the significant environmental impacts which would occur as a result of a proposed project, and informs decision-makers and the public of the reasonable alternatives which would avoid or minimize adverse impacts. Public participation and consultation with other Federal, state, and local agencies is a cornerstone of the EIS process.
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) – The FAA is the Federal agency responsible for insuring the safe and efficient use of the nation’s airspace, for fostering civil aeronautics and air commerce, and for supporting the requirements of national defense. The activities required to carry out these responsibilities include: safety regulations; airspace management and the establishment, operation, and maintenance of a system of air traffic control and navigation facilities; research and development in support of the fostering of a national system of airports, promulgation of standards and specifications for civil airports, and administration of Federal grants-in-aid for developing public airports; various joint and cooperative activities with the Department of Defense; and technical assistance (under State Department auspices) to other countries.
Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) – The body of Federal regulations relating to aviation. Published as Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations.
Final Approach – A flight path that follows the extended runway centerline. It usually extends from the base leg to the runway.
Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) – If, following the preparation of an environmental assessment, the Federal Agency determines a proposed project will not result in any significant environmental impact, a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) is issued by the Federal Agency. A FONSI is a document briefly explaining the reasons why an action will not have a significant effect on the human environment and for which an EIS, therefore, is not necessary.
Fixed-Base Operator (FBO) – A business located on the airport that provides services such as hangar space, fuel, flight training, repair, and maintenance to airport users.
Flight Track Utilization – The use of established routes for arrival and departure by aircraft to and from the runways at the airport.
FMS/GPS – Flight Management System/Global Positioning System equipment onboard an aircraft takes advantage of various radio navigation and/or GPS routes to guide the aircraft.
Glide Slope (GS) – Provides vertical guidance for aircraft during approach and landing. The glide slope consists of the following:
- Electronic components emitting signals which provide vertical guidance by reference to airborne instruments during instrument approaches such as ILS, or
- Visual ground aids, such as VASI, which provide vertical guidance for VFR approach or for the visual portion of an instrument approach and landing.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) – An information system that is designed for storing, integrating, manipulating, analyzing, and displaying data referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates.
Global Positioning System (GPS) – A system of 24 satellites used as reference points to enable navigators equipped with GPS receivers to determine their latitude, longitude, and altitude. The accuracy of the system can be further refined by using a ground receiver at a known location to calculate the error in the satellite range data. This is known as differential GPS (DGPS).
Grid Analysis – A type of aircraft noise analysis that evaluates the noise levels at individual points rather than through generation of noise contours.
Ground Effect – Noise attenuation attributed to absorption or reflection of noise by man-made or natural features on the ground surface.
Hub – An airport that services airlines that have hubbing operations.
Hubbing – A method of airline scheduling that times the arrival and departure of several aircraft in a close period of time in order to allow the transfer of passengers between different flights of the same airline in order to reach their ultimate destination. Several airlines may conduct hubbing operations at an airport.
Infill – Urban development occurring on vacant lots in substantially developed areas. May also include the redevelopment of areas to a greater density.
Instrument Approach – A series of predetermined maneuvers for the orderly transfer of an aircraft under instrument flight conditions from the beginning of the initial approach to a landing, or to a point from which a landing may be made visually.
Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) – That portion of the Federal Aviation Regulations (14 CFR 91) specifying the procedures to be used by aircraft during flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions. These procedures may also be used under visual conditions and provide for positive control by ATC. (See also VFR).
Instrument Landing System (ILS) – An electronic system installed at some airports which helps to guide pilots to runways for landing during periods of limited visibility or adverse weather.
Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) – Weather conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from clouds, and cloud ceilings during which all aircraft are required to operate using instrument flight rules (IFR).
Integrated Noise Model (INM) – A computer model developed, updated and maintained by the FAA to predict the noise exposure generated by aircraft operations at an airport.
Knots – Airspeed measured as the distance in nautical miles (6,076.1 feet) covered in one hour. (Approximately equal to 1.15 miles per hour.)
Land and Hold Short Operations (LAHSO) – An air traffic control procedure intended to increase overall airport capacity without compromising safety. LAHSO include landing and holding short of an intersecting runway, taxiway, or some other designated point on a runway or taxiway.
Land Use Compatibility – The ability of land uses surrounding the airport to coexist with airport-related activities with minimum conflict.
Landing and Takeoff (LTO) Cycle – The time that an aircraft is in operation at or near an airport. An LTO cycle begins when an aircraft starts its final approach (arrival) and ends after the aircraft has made its climb-out (departure).
Ldn – See DNL . Ldn is used in place of DNL in mathematical equations only.
Leq – Equivalent Sound Level. The steady A-weighted sound level over any specified period of time (not necessarily 24 hours) that has the same acoustic energy as the fluctuating noise during that period (with no consideration of nighttime weighting). It is a measure of cumulative acoustical energy. Because the time interval may vary, it should be specified by a subscript (such as Leq 8 for an 8-hour exposure to noise) or be clearly understood from the context.
Level Equivalent Sound Level (Leq) – The average A-weighted sound level over any specified time period.
Local Passenger – A passenger who either enters or exits a metropolitan area on flights serviced by the area’s airport. A local passenger is the opposite of a connecting passenger.
Localizer – The component of an ILS which provides lateral course guidance to the runway.
Loudness – The subjective assessment of the intensity of sound.
Mean Sea Level (MSL) – The average height of the surface of the sea for all stages of the tide; used as a reference for elevations. Also called sea level datum.
Merge – Combining noise events that exceed a given threshold level and occur within a selected period of time.
Missed Approach – A prescribed procedure to be followed by aircraft that cannot complete an attempted landing at an airport.
Narrow-body Aircraft – A commercial passenger jet having a single aisle and maximum of three seats on each side of the aisle. Common narrow-body aircraft include A320, B717, B727, B737, B757, DC9, MD80, and MD90.
National Airspace System (NAS) – The common network of U.S. airspace; air navigation facilities, equipment, services, airports, or landing areas; aeronautical charts, information, and services; rules, regulations, and procedures; technical information, manpower, and materials, all of which are used in aerial navigation.
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) – The original legislation establishing the environmental review process for proposed Federal actions.
Nautical Mile – A measure of distance equal to one minute of arc on the earth’s surface (6,076.1 feet or 1,852 meters).
NAVAIDs (Navigational Aids) – Any facility used by an aircraft for navigation.
Navigational Fix – A geographical position determined by reference to one or more radio navigational aids.
Noise Abatement – A measure or action that minimizes the amount of impact of noise on the environs of an airport. Noise abatement measures include aircraft operating procedures and use or disuse of certain runways or flight tracks.
Noise Berm – A manmade soil structure designed to interrupt the direct transmission of noise from a source to a noise-sensitive area.
Noise Contour Map – A map representing average annual noise levels summarized by lines connecting points of equal noise exposure.
Noise Compatibility Program (NCP) – Program developed in accordance with FAR Part 150 guidance that contains provisions for the abatement of aircraft noise through aircraft operating procedures, air traffic control procedures, or airport facility modifications. It also includes provisions for land use compatibility planning and may include actions to mitigate the impact of noise on incompatible land uses and recommendations for amending local land use controls to affect future land uses and development. The program must contain provisions for updating and periodic revision.
Noise Compatibility Study – The process, methods, and procedures provided in the FAR Part 150 guidance to develop a Noise Compatibility Program, including the development of noise exposure maps, a noise compatibility program, and public participation.
Noise Exposure Map (NEM) – A geographic depiction of an airport, its noise contours for existing conditions and as forecast for five years in the future, and surrounding area developed in accordance with FAR Part 150 guidance. Documentation of the Noise Exposure Maps must include airport operating characteristics for existing conditions and all reasonable and foreseeable airport operating characteristics for the future condition.
Nondirectional Beacon (NDB) – A beacon transmitting nondirectional signals whereby the pilot of an aircraft equipped with direction finding equipment can determine his bearing to and from the station. When the radio beacon is installed in conjunction with the ILS marker, it is normally called a compass locator.
Nonprecision Approach – A standard instrument approach procedure providing runway alignment but no glide slope or descent information.
Operation – A takeoff or landing by an aircraft.
Outer Fix – An air traffic control term for a point in the airspace from which aircraft are normally cleared to the approach fix or final approach course.
Positive Control – The separation of all air traffic within designated airspace as directed by air traffic controllers.
Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) – Provides visual approach slope guidance to aircraft during an approach. It is similar to a VASI but provides a sharper transition between the colored indicator lights.
Precision Approach Procedure – A standard instrument approach procedure in which an electronic glideslope/glidepath is provided (e.g., ILS and PAR ).
Precision Approach Radar (PAR) – Navigational equipment located on the ground adjacent to the runway, and consisting of one antenna, which scans the vertical plane, and a second antenna, which scans the horizontal plane. The PAR provides the controller with a picture of the descending aircraft in azimuth, distance, and elevation, permitting an accurate determination of the aircraft’s alignment relative to the runway centerline and the glide slope.
Primary Commercial Service Airport – A commercial airport which enplanes 0.01 percent or more of the total annual U.S. enplanements.
Primary Runway – The runway on which the majority of operations take place.
Profile – The position of the aircraft during an approach or departure in terms of altitude above the runway and distance from the runway end.
Propagation – Sound propagation is the spreading or radiating of sound energy from the noise source. It usually involves a reduction in sound energy with increased distance from the source. Atmospheric conditions, terrain, natural objects, and manmade objects affect sound propagation.
Public Use Airport – An airport open to public use without prior permission, and without restrictions within the physical capabilities of the facility. It may or may not be publicly owned.
Reliever Airport – An airport which, when certain criteria are met, relieves the aeronautical demand on a busier air carrier airport.
Retrofitted Aircraft – An aircraft originally certified as Stage 2 and has been modified to meet Stage 3 requirements. This includes both modification of engines or the replacement of engines to meet the Stage 3 standard.
Runup – A routine procedure for testing aircraft systems by running one or more engines at a high power setting. Engine runups are normally conducted by airline maintenance personnel checking an engine or other on board systems following maintenance.
Runway End Identifier Lights (REIL) – Two synchronized flashing lights, one on each side of the runway threshold, which identify the approach end of the runway.
Runway Protection Zone (RPZ) – An area, trapezoidal in shape and centered about the extended runway centerline, designated to enhance the safety of aircraft operations. It begins 200 feet (60 M) beyond the end of the area usable for takeoff or landing. The RPZ dimensions are functions of the aircraft, type of operation, and visibility minimums. (Formerly known as the clear zone).
Runway Safety Area (RSA) – A defined surface surrounding the runway prepared or suitable for reducing the risk or damage to airplanes in the event of an undershoot, overshoot, or excursion from the runway.
Runway Threshold – The beginning of that portion of the runway usable for landing.
Runway Use Program – A noise abatement runway selection plan crafted to further noise abatement efforts for communities around airports. A runway selection plan is developed into a runway use program. It typically applies to all turbojet aircraft 12,500 pounds or heavier. Turbojet aircraft less than 12,500 pounds are included only if the airport proprietor determines that the aircraft creates a noise problem. These programs are coordinated with the FAA in accordance with FAA Order 8400.9, National Safety and Operational Criteria for Runway Use Programs , and are administered as either “formal” or “informal” programs.
Runway Use Program (formal) – An approved runway use program outlined in a Letter of Understanding between the FAA-Flight Standards, FAA-Air Traffic Service, the airport proprietor, and the users. It is mandatory for aircraft operators and pilots as provided for in FAR Section 91.87.
Runway Use Program (informal) – An approved runway use program that does not require a Letter of Understanding. Participation in the program by aircraft operators and pilots is voluntary.
Single event – One noise event. For many kinds of analysis, the sound from single events is expressed using the Sound Exposure Level (SEL) metric.
Slant-range distance – The distance along a straight line between an aircraft and a point on the ground.
Sound – Sound is the result of vibration in the air. The vibration produces alternating bands of relatively dense and sparse particles of air, spreading outward from the source in the same way as ripples do on water after a stone is thrown into it. The result of the movement is fluctuation in the normal atmospheric pressure or sound waves.
Sound Exposure Level (SEL) – A standardized measure of a single sound event, expressed in A-weighted decibels, that takes into account all sound above a specified threshold set at least 10 decibels below the maximum level. All sound energy in the event is integrated over one second.
Special Use Airspace – Airspace of defined dimensions identified by an area on the earth’s surface wherein activities must be confined because of their nature and/or wherein limitations may be imposed upon aircraft operations, which are not part of those activities.
Stage 2 Aircraft – Aircraft that meet the noise levels prescribed by FAR Part 36, which is less stringent than those, established for the quieter Stage 3 designation. The Airport Noise and Capacity Act required the phase-out of all Stage 2 aircraft over 75,000 pounds by December 31, 1999 , with the potential for case-by-case exceptions through the year 2003.
Stage 3 Aircraft – Aircraft that meet the most stringent noise levels set in FAR Part 36.
Standard Instrument Departure Procedure (SID) – A planned IFR air traffic control departure procedure published for pilot use in graphic and textual form. SIDs provide transition from the terminal to the en route air traffic control structure.
Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR) – A planned IFR air traffic control arrival procedure published for pilot use in graphic and textual form. STARs provide transition from the en route air traffic control structure to an outer fix or an instrument approach fix in the terminal area.
Statute Mile – A measure of distance equal to 5,280 feet.
TACAN – Tactical Air Navigation. A navigational system used by the military. TACAN provides both azimuth and distance information to a receiver on board an aircraft.
Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON) – An FAA Air Traffic Control Facility which uses radar and two-way communication to provide separation of air traffic within a specified geographic area in the vicinity of one or more airports.
Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA) – Airspace surrounding certain airports where ATC provides radar vectoring, sequencing, and separation on a full-time basis for all IFR and participating VFR aircraft.
Through Passenger – An airline passenger who arrives at an airport and departs without deplaning the aircraft.
Time Above (TA) – The amount of time that sound exceeds a given decibel level during a 24-hour period (e.g., time in minutes that the sound level is above 75 dBA).
Touchdown Zone Lighting (TDZ) – A system of two rows of transverse light bars located symmetrically about the runway centerline, usually at 100-foot intervals and extending 3,000 feet along the runway.
Traffic Pattern – The traffic flow for aircraft landing and departure at an airport. Typical components of the traffic pattern include: upwind leg, crosswind leg, downwind leg, base leg, and final approach.
UNICOM – A nongovernment communication facility, which may provide airport information at certain airports. Aeronautical charts and publications show the locations and frequencies of UNICOMs.
Upwind Leg – A flight path parallel to the approach runway in the direction of approach.
Vector – Compass heading instructions issued by ATC in providing navigational guidance by radar.
Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR) Station – A ground-based radio navigation aid transmitting signals in all directions. A VOR provides azimuth guidance to pilots by reception of electronic signals.
Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range Station with Tactical Air Navigation (VORTAC) – A navigational aid providing VOR azimuth and TACAN distance measuring equipment (DME) at one site.
Visual Approach – An approach conducted on an IFR flight plan, which authorizes the pilot to proceed visually and clear of clouds to the airport.
Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI) – A visual aid to final approach to the runway threshold, consisting of two wing bars of lights on either side of the runway. Each bar produces a split beam of light – the upper segment is white, the lower is red.
Visual Flight Rules (VFR) – Rules and procedures specified in 14 CFR 91 for aircraft operations under visual conditions. Aircraft operations under VFR are not generally under positive control by ATC. The term VFR is also used in the United States to indicate weather conditions that are equal to or greater than minimum VFR requirements. In addition, it is used by pilots and controllers to indicate a type of flight plan.
Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) – Weather conditions expressed in terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and cloud ceiling equal to or greater than those specified in 14 CFR 91.155 for aircraft operations under Visual Flight Rules (VFR).
Wide-Body Aircraft – A commercial jet with a wingspan generally greater than 155 feet and, in passenger configuration, having two aisles with 8 to 11 seats across in a row. Common wide-body aircraft include the A300, A310, B747, B767, B777, DC-10, and MD-11.
Yearly Day-Night Average Sound Level – see DNL .
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